Graduate Courses

Graduate Courses

Please consult your academic counselor and the Wake Forest Information Network for openings and availability

601-605. Topics in Biology. (1-4) Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, some involving laboratory instruction. Staff

607. Biophysics. (3) Introduction to the structure, dynamic behavior, and function of DNA and proteins, and a survey of membrane biophysics. The physical principles of structure determination by X-ray, NMR, and optical methods are emphasized. Kim-Shapiro

614. Evolution. (3) Analysis of the theories, evidences, and mechanisms of evolution. Eure

615. Population Genetics. (4) Study of the amount and distribution of genetic variation in populations of organisms, and of how processes such as mutation, recombination, and selection affect genetic variation. Lectures present both an introduction to theoretical studies and discussion of molecular and phenotypic variation in natural populations. Zeyl

617. Plant Physiology and Development. (3) Lecture course examining the growth, development, and physiological processes of plants. The control of these processes are examined on genetic, biochemical, and whole plant levels. Muday

617. Plant Physiology and Development. (4) Lecture course examining the growth, development, and physiological processes of plants. The control of these processes are examined on genetic, biochemical, and whole plant levels. Labs consist of structured experiments and an independently designed research project. Muday

620. Comparative Anatomy. (4) Study of the vertebrate body from an evolutionary, functional, and developmental perspective. Labs emphasize structure and function, primarily through the dissection of representative vertebrates. Ashley-Ross

621. Parasitology. (4) Survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites from the standpoint of morphology, taxonomy, life histories, and host/parasite relationships. Esch, Eure

622. Biomechanics. (4) Analysis of the relationship between organismal form and function using principles from physics and engineering. Solid and fluid mechanics are employed to study design in living systems, especially vertebrates. Ashley-Ross

623. Animal Behavior. (4) Survey of laboratory and field research on animal behavior. Conner

624. Hormones and Behavior. (3) Introduction to the hormonal regulation of behavior in a broad range of animals, including humans and invertebrates. Topics include reproductive behavior, parental behavior, social behavior, sex differences, aggressive behavior, stress, mood, and the regulations of molting in insects. Fahrbach

625. Chronobiology. (3) Introduction to the field of biological rhythms, covering different types of rhythms, their evolution, and the mechanisms by which such rhythms are generated and regulated at the molecular, cellular, and system levels. E. Johnson

626. Microbiology. (4) The structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria. Topics include microbial ecology, industrial microbiology, and medical microbiology. Labs emphasize microbial diversity through characterizations of isolates from nature.
Curran

631. Invertebrates. (4) Systematic study of invertebrates, with emphasis on functional morphology, behavior, ecology, and phylogeny. Dimock

633. Vertebrates. (4) Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, physiology, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and experimental studies. Weigl

635. Insect Biology. (4) Study of the diversity, structure, development, physiology, behavior, and ecology of insects. Conner

635S. Insect Biology. (4) A five-week course taught during the summer. A study of the diversity, structure, development, physiology, behavior, and ecology of one of the most diverse taxa on earth. Course location and field trip destinations to be announced each summer. P—POI. Conner

638. Plant Systematics. (4) Study of the diversity and evolution of flowering plants. Lectures emphasize the comparative study of selected plant families, their relationships, and the use of new information and techniques to enhance our understanding of plant evolution. Labs emphasize more practical aspects of plant systematics such as the use of identification keys, recognition of common local plants, molecular techniques, and basic phylogenetic analysis. Kron

639. Principles of Biosystematics. (4) Exploration of the current theoretical and practical approaches to the study of macroevolution in plants and animals. Topics include theory and methods of constructing evolutionary trees, sources of data, and cladistic biogeography. Kron

640. Ecology. (4) Interrelationships among living systems and their environments, structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types, contemporary problems in ecology. Weigl

641. Marine Biology. (4) Introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. Dimock

642. Aquatic Ecology. (4) Designed to cover the general principles and concepts of limnology and aquatic biology as they apply to lentic and lotic habitats. A major portion of the field studies centered at the Charles M. Allen Biological Station. R. Browne, Esch

643. Tropical Ecology. (3) Exploration of the ecology, biodiversity, history, and future of tropical ecosystems. Lectures emphasize ecological principles and rely heavily on the primary literature. Silman

644S. Tropical Marine Ecology. (4) Intensive field-oriented course focusing on tropical marine ecosystems and their biological communities. Emphasis is on biodiversity, the ecology of dominant taxa, the interaction between physical and biological processes, and the structure and function of representative communities. Includes 2.5 weeks at the Hofstra University Maine Laboratory, Jamaica. Offered during summer school only. (First term/Special term) Dimock

646. Neurobiology. (4) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system with emphasis on neurophysiology. The labs emphasize traditional electrophysiological techniques with experiments from the cellular to the behavioral level. Silver

647. Physiological Plant Ecology. (3) Designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how plants have adapted to the stresses of their habitats, particularly in harsh or extreme environments such as deserts, the alpine, the arctic tundra, and tropical rain forests. Smith

648. Physiological Plant Ecology. (4) Designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how plants have adapted to the stresses of their habitats, particularly in harsh or extreme environments such as deserts, the alpine, the arctic tundra, and tropical rain forests. The labs introduce students to a broad array of field instrumentation. Smith

649S. Tropical Biodiversity. (4) Intensive field course in tropical biodiversity. Students travel to major tropical biomes, including deserts, glaciated peaks and rain forests. Lectures emphasize the basic ecological principles important in each ecosystem; labs consist of student-designed field projects. Course location varies yearly. Silman

651. Vertebrate Physiology. (4) A lecture and lab course that discusses and demonstrates the principles of bioelectricity and biomechanics. Regulatory principles and the physiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems of vertebrates are covered. Lane

652. Developmental Neuroscience. (4) Focuses on the development of neural structures and the plasticity of the mature nervous system. Special attention is given to experimental model systems, particularly Drosophila melanogaster. The labs feature molecular, immunocytochemical, and cell culture techniques for the study of neurons. Fahrbach

654. Endocrinology. (3) Lecture course that explores the evolution of hormones and endocrine glands, and the physiology of the main hormonal pathways of vertebrates. Lane

655. Avian Biology. (4) A lecture and lab course emphasizing ecological and evolutionary influences on the physiology, behavior, and population biology of birds. Includes taxonomy of the world’s major bird groups. Anderson

659. Genomics. (3) Introduction to the acquisition, analysis, and utility of DNA sequence information. Topics covered include structural, comparative, and functional genomics, genetic mapping, bioinformatics, and proteomics. Staff

660. Development. (4) A description of the major events and processes of animal development, with an analysis of the causal factors underlying them. Special attention is given to the embryonic development of vertebrates, but consideration is also given to other types of development and other organisms. Topics include fertilization, early development, growth and cell division, cell differentiation, the role of genes in development, cell interaction, morphogenesis, regeneration,
birth defects, and cancer. C. Browne

661. Microbial Pathogenesis. (3) Explores the molecular mechanisms by which microorganisms attack hosts, how hosts defend against pathogens, and how these interactions cause disease. Curran

662. Immunology. (3) Study of the components and protective mechanisms of the immune system. Kuhn

663. Sensory Biology. (3) Lecture course that examines a variety of sensory systems. Emphasis is on sensory physiology, although other aspects of sensory systems, e.g. molecular biology and anatomy, are also covered. Silver

664. Sensory Biology. (4) Lecture and lab course that examines a variety of sensory systems. The emphasis is on sensory physiology, although other aspects of sensory systems, e.g. molecular biology and anatomy, are also covered. In the laboratory, students learn several different procedures which they use to conduct assigned experiments. A final project is required in which students design and carry out their own experiments. Silver

665. Biology of the Cell. (4) Lecture and lab course on recent advances in cell biology. Lectures emphasize analysis and interpretation of experimental data in the primary literature, focusing on topics such as the large scale architecture of the cell, targeting of macromolecules, cell-cell communication, cell signaling, and the control of cell division. The labs introduce basic techniques in cell biology and leads to an independent project. Tague

667. Virology. (3) Designed to introduce students to viruses, viral/host interactions, pathogenicity, methods of control and their use in molecular biology, including gene therapy. Curran, Lord

668. The Cell Biological Basis of Disease. (3) Examines some of the defects in basic cellular mechanisms that are responsible for many common and less common diseases. Special topics in cell biology are discussed, and students read original scientific papers correlating these topics with specific disease states. C. Browne

669. The Cell Biological Basis of Disease. (4) Examines some of the defects in basic cellular mechanisms that are responsible for many diseases. The labs use advanced microscopic and histological techniques to investigate basic properties of cells. C. Browne

670. Biochemistry: Macromolecules and Metabolism. (3) Lecture course introducing the principles of biochemistry, with an emphasis on the experimental approaches that elucidated these principles. Major topics include structure, function, and biosynthesis of biological molecules, analysis of enzyme function and activity, bioenergetics, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Muday

671. Biochemistry Macromolecules and Metabolism. (4) Lecture and lab course introducing the principles of biochemistry, with an emphasis on the experimental approaches that elucidated these principles. Major topics include structure, function, and biosynthesis of biological molecules, analysis of enzyme function and activity, bio-energetics, and regulation of metabolic pathways. The labs emphasize approaches for isolation of proteins and enzymes. Muday

672. Molecular Biology. (4) Analysis of the molecular mechanisms by which stored information directs cellular development. Emphasis is on storage and transmission of genetic information, regulation of gene expression, and the role of these processes in development. The labs focus on modern techniques of recombinant DNA analysis. Muday, Tague

676. Biology of Fishes. (4) Comparative study of the structure/function, classification, and phylogeny of fish. Eure

677. Community Ecology. (4) An advanced ecology course covering mechanisms that determine the dynamics and distribution of plant and animal assemblages: life-history, competition, predation, geology, climate, soils, and history. Lectures focus on ecological principles and theory. Labs include local field trips and discussion of primary literature. Several weekend field trips. Silman

678. Biogeography. (3) Study of geographical, historical, and ecological influences on the distribution, movements, and diversity of organisms. The seminar relies on extensive reading, film, and map work as a basis for class discussions. Weigl

680. Biostatistics. (3) Introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, including descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, and regression and correlation. R. Browne

681. Biostatistics Laboratory. (1) Application of computer-based statistical software. Optional laboratory available only to students who have taken or are currently enrolled in BIO 680. R. Browne

691, 692, 693, 694. Research in Biology. (1, 1, 1, 1) Independent library and laboratory investigation carried out under the supervision of a member of the staff. P—POI. Staff

701-708. Topics in Biology. (1-4) Seminar courses in selected topics, some involving laboratory instruction. At least one offered each semester. Staff

711, 712. Directed Study in Biology. (1, 1) Reading and/or laboratory problems carried out under and by permission of a faculty member. Staff

715. Foundations of Physiology. (1-4) Covers classical and current topics and techniques in comparative physiology. Format varies from seminar to a full laboratory course. Staff

716. Signal Transduction. (2) Focuses on the mechanisms of inter- and intra-cellular communication. Topics range from receptors to signaling molecules to physiological responses. Largely based on the primary literature and requires student presentation of primary research articles. C. Browne, Muday, Tague

717. Developmental Mechanisms. (2) Seminar course examining the molecular, biochemical, and cellular mechanisms of animal and/or plant development. Relevant topics selected from the current literature are discussed in lecture and presentation formats. C. Browne, Tague, Muday

718. Gene Expression. (2) Seminar covers gene expression in eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems. Topics range from transcription to translation to other aspects of gene regulation. Emphasis is on the experimental basis for understanding the mechanisms of gene expression. Students present, in seminar format, appropriate papers from literature. All students participate in discussion and evaluation of presentations. Tague, C. Browne, Curran, Muday

725. Plant Genetics. (1,2) Covers various aspects of plant genetics in a seminar format. Topics range from classical Mendelian genetics to genomics and bioinformatics, depending on the interests of the students. Students present the results, conclusions, and significance of appropriate papers from the literature. All students participate in discussion and evaluation of presentations. Muday, Tague

726. Plant Physiology. (1, 2) Covers various aspects of plant physiology and hormones in a seminar format. Topics range from auxin transport to properties of light within the leaf. Students present the results, conclusions, and significance of appropriate papers from the literature. All students participate in discussion and evaluation of presentations. Muday, Smith

727. Plant Evolution. (1,2) Covers various aspects of plant evolution in a seminar format. Topics range from problems in phylogeny reconstruction and patterns of diversity to major evolutionary innovations in various plant groups. Students present the results, conclusions, and significance of appropriate papers from the literature. All students participate in discussion and evaluation of presentations. Kron, Silman

728. Plant Ecology. (1,2) Covers various aspects of plant ecology in a seminar format. Topics vary depending on graduate student interest. Students present the results, conclusions, and significance of appropriate papers from the literature. All students participate in discussion and evaluation of presentations. Silman, Smith

730. Invertebrate Zoology. (4) Emphasis on the physiology and ecology of invertebrate animals. Dimock

736. Bioacoustics. (4) Analysis of the mechanisms of sound production, transmission, and reception and their relevance to animal orientation and communication. Conner

740. Physiological Ecology. (4) Introduction to evolutionary/ecological physiology, with emphasis on the interactions between organisms and major abiotic factors of the environment including, water balance—hydration, gaseous exchange— respiration, temperature tolerance— thermal physiology. Dimock

757. Techniques in Mathematical Biology. (3) Offers students a framework for understanding the use of mathematics in both biological theory and empirical research. Emphasis is on practical applications of mathematical techniques, and learning by doing. A central goal is to give students tools to use in their own research. Topics covered include continuous and discrete population models, matrix models, stochastic models, life-history theory, and fitting models for
data. Mathematical skills are taught and refreshed, but knowledge of basic calculus is required. Silman, Anderson, Baxley

762. Immunology. (4) Humoral and cellular immune responses are examined to understand the basic immunobiology of vertebrates with special emphasis on cell-cell interactions and immunoregulation. Labs introduce students to basic methods in immunological research. Kuhn

763. Cellular and Molecular Interactions Between Hosts and Parasites. (3) Examines the responses of animal hosts in attempting to immunologically and non-immunologically reject/control both endo- and ecto-parasites and responses of these parasites to the host environment. Consists of lectures and student presentations and requires a comprehensive review article by students. Kuhn

764. Sensory Biology. (4) Lecture and lab course involving a study of energy in the environment and how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches are integrated in the study of sensory mechanisms in plants and animals. A lab project implementing the scientific method and designed to produce new knowledge is required. Silver

775. Microscopy for the Biological Sciences. (4) Introduction to the various types of light, confocal, and electron microscopy. Students learn technical and theoretical aspects of microscopy, methods of sample preparation, digital image acquisition and analysis, and the preparation of publication quality images. Emphasizes practical applications of microscopy, microscopy experimental design, and hands-on use of microscopes and digital imaging systems. Students are expected to design and conduct a microscopy project and present their results to the class. Additionally, students are expected to participate in class discussions regarding newly emerging microscopy techniques in various biological disciplines. McCauley

777. Biophysical Ecology. (4) Designed to introduce students to the interactions of the organism with the physical environment. Sunlight, temperature, water availability and humidity, wind, and longwave radiation (greenhouse effect) strongly influence an organism’s growth and reproductive potential. Differences in heat and mass transfer to and from the organism, plus corresponding organism responses in structure, physiology, and behavior to changes in the local environment, are addressed. These same principles are also important to the design of energy-efficient homes (passive solar), clothing design (Gortex), outdoor survival and gardening, to name only a few of humankind’s everyday activities. Smith

778. Advanced Ecology. (4) Covers current research in the field of ecology with a focus at the community level. Experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation are emphasized. Silman

779. Molecular Techniques in Evolution and Systematics. (4) Lecture and lab course that explores molecular methods that are basic to many disciplines within biology, especially ecology, evolution, and systematics. Labs focus on the acquisition of molecular techniques, including allozyme electrophoresis, mitochondrial plastid, and nuclear DNA restriction fragment length
polymorphism analyses, gene amplification, PCR (polymerase chain reaction), direct and/or cycle sequencing, and RAPDS (randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs). Kron

780. Advanced Systematics. (3) Literature-based course that covers various subdisciplines within systematics including cladistic biogeography, history and theory of systematics, analytical techniques and database management of systematic data. Kron

782. Behavioral Ecology. (3) Lecture course analyzing behavioral solutions to challenges faced by animals in nature, emphasizing the role of natural selection in shaping behavior. Topics include mating systems, optimal foraging, sociobiology, parental care, and evolution of sexual reproduction. Anderson

783. Teaching Skills and Instructional Development. (3) Introduction to teaching college-level science courses. Emphasis is on: defining and achieving realistic course goals; mechanics of selecting, developing and refining topics for lecture or laboratory; effective presentation strategies; and creating an active learning environment. Students develop a teaching portfolio containing course syllabi, lecture outlines, and student-ready laboratory materials. Format combines didactic lectures, individual projects, and group discussions and critiques. Course meets for two, 2-hour periods each week. D. Johnson

791, 792. Thesis Research. (1-9) Staff

793. Summer Research. A course for summer research by continuing graduate students working with their adviser. Staff

891, 892. Dissertation Research. (1-9) Staff