History 264 Bitter Contests: Industrialization, Urbanization, and Conflict, 1877-1933
This course will examine the post-reconstructed nation with special attention to the politics of equilibrium; the economic impact of industrialization and agricultural revolutions; the positive and negative aspects of rapid urbanization; immigration and the class, ethnic, and religious clashes that ensued; Jim Crow and civil rights; the growth of Big Business and labor’s response; Populism; the acquisition of an empire; Progressive reforms at city, state and federal levels; World War I at home and abroad; and the changing notions of femininity and masculinity. The course will end with the onset of the Depression and Hoover ‘s response to it.

History 265 History of the US since the New Deal
This course will examine the institution of the New Deal as FDR’s response to the depression; wars at home and abroad, including World War II, the Cold War, Korea, Vietnam, and Iraq I & II; the rise and fall of unionism; various movements from civil rights, women’s rights, welfare rights, Native American rights, to student rights; countercultures from the 1950s through the 1980s; government regulation of the environment; mainstream and new religions; science and technology; the growth of the Imperial Presidency; Watergate and beyond; and liberalism and conservatism.

History 338 Gender, Race and Class since 1800
This course examines gender relations from the late nineteenth century to the present. We will analyze the varying definitions of feminity and masculinity, the changing notions of sexuality, and the continuity and diversity of gender roles. We will examine how political, economic, and cultural changes impacted the way society defined manhood and womanhood over the last two centuries. We will pay particular attention to race, class and ethnicity. The class is primarily based on discussion of historical monographs and primary documents.

History 339 Sickness and Health in American Society
The course is a broad survey of American medicine from the precolonial period to the present. We will examine the indigenous healing methods of Native Americans; the introduction of European methods; the development of surgical techniques and the use of anesthesia; the professionalization of medicine; medical education; the changes in childbirth procedures; health care during war time; the impact of diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, etc.; health insurance; the ethics of human experimentation; sexually transmitted diseases; and reproductive health issues. The class is a combination of lecture and discussion, with a heavy emphasis on the latter. A recent discussion of why the history of medicine is important to premedical students can be found here.

HST 390 Long Decade of the Sixties, 1956- 1974    In this seminar, we will explore changes in American society from the Eisenhower years of domesticity and cold war tensions through the Nixon years of protests and Watergate. Students will choose their own topic with assistance from the professor. Possible topics include electoral politics, civil rights, women’s rights, student movements, antiwar protest, the counter culture, poverty and welfare, the environment/conservation, gender roles, religion, the arts, medical advancements, and scientific/technological advancements (space exploration, etc.). As a research seminar, all students will be required to complete a twenty-five to thirty page research paper based on primary and relevant secondary sources. The first six weeks of the class will entail intensive reading and discussion of secondary materials to familiarize students with the background necessary to write the research paper.

FYS 100 Controversies in American Medical History
This course examines controversies in American medical history from the colonial period to the present.  Questions driving the class include: What is health?  What is disease?  Who is to blame for disease? Who is responsible for maintaining health – the individual or the state?  Are drug abuse, alcoholism, kleptomania, anorexia nervosa, obesity, Erectile Dysfunction and ADHD, to name a few, social ills, syndromes or public health issues? How do race, class, ethnicity and gender shape societal responses to medical controversies? Some of the issues we will discuss include germ warfare; religious freedom versus state regulation; slave health care; venereal disease; the Right to Die; fetal alcohol syndrome versus “crack babies”;  over-dependence on prescriptions; abortion and sterilization; Human Experimentation; medical marijuana; National Health Care from Teddy Roosevelt to Obama; stem cell and cloning; the anti-vivisection movement; electroconvulsive therapy and lobotomies; PTSD; Gender and Sexuality (Hermaphrodites, Intersex, transgender, and homosexuality); and childbirth. We will also discuss who has the right to practice medicine – Allopaths? Midwives? Chiropractors? Homeopaths? Osteopaths? – and how this right has changed over time.

History 102 Europe and the Modern World
This course examines the political, social, economic, and cultural experiences of Europeans since 1700. We will analyze the growing importance of nationalism and the expansion of liberalism. We will look at how Europeans interacted with each other and with non-European cultures. The class will end with an analysis of recent important events, such as the break-up of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, the Gulf War and Iraq War, and the ongoing Arab-Israeli negotiations. The format of the class is a combination of lecture and discussion.

Web Sites for Research

For a complete guide to research and writing, see Professor William Cronan’s website at

For proper citations for history research papers, please consult Kate Turabian, A Manual for Writers, at

For help on when to cite and what constitutes plagiarism, see (thanks to Rachel and Ms. Ward’s class in Delaware)

The Wake Forest Electronic Resources webpage can be found at

Primary Source databases can be found at

  • Type into the data base:  “Federal Response to Radicalism in the 1960s”
  • Type into the data base:  “Japanese-American Relocation Camp Newspapers: Perspectives on Day-to-Day Life

A collection of radical history sources, including topics such as the American Indian Movement, the Birth Control Movement, the Black Panthers, the Hollywood Ten, the Industrial Workers of the World, the Japanese-American Internment, the Ku Klux Klan, the Rosenberg Case, the Sacco-Vanzetti Case, Students for a Democratic Society, and Wounded Knee, can be found at

More than 55,000 photos from the Great Depression through World War II collected by the Farm Security Administration and Office of War Information can be found at

Oral Histories and photos from the Great Depression can be found at

Information on the Dust Bowl can be found at

The Rocky Mountain Online Archive has more than 2,000 archival and special collections dealing with architecture, frontier and pioneer life, land grant and water rights, and wildlife conservation at

An online guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transsexual History can be found at

A web site dealing with songs of various social movements can be found at

A site containing information about the National Coalition of Independent Scholars, its publications, and its activities is

The National Archives and Records Administration has placed correspondence between Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill,  This site also contains 41 photographs of Native Americans in the Southwestern US between 1879-1894.

The National Security Archives contains 37 collections of over 90,000 indexed government documents dealing with US foreign policy from 1945 to the present:

A web site dealing with documents from the women’s suffrage movement is

For information dealing with the Women’s Rights Movement, 1848-1998, see

For information on women veterans from World War I to Iraq, see

For information dealing with Margaret Sanger and her efforts in the birth control movement, see

Websites for History of Medicine Research:

For the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine, go to

For books and manuscripts, see

For Images from the History of Medicine, see

For Exhibitions, see

For information on disability in the Civil War, see

For Profiles in Science, see

For the records of Dr. John C. Cutler and his Syphilis Guatemalan study 1946 – 1948, see

For information on the history of pharmacy and technicians, see

For the history of anesthesia, see

For access to health policy news and historical public opinion polls on health issues dating from 1935, see

For advertisements dealing with medicine from 1850 to 1950, see

For information on the history of the Food and Drug Administration, see

For information on alternative and integrated approaches to health care and wellness, see

For a basic timeline of the history of cancer detection from 1851-1995, see

For a timeline of health care reform efforts, see

For access to several hundred digitalized medical works, including several editions of the Hippocratic corpus, theses by famous 19th century doctors, and other 19th century classic monographs, see

For the papers, letters, pictures and lectures of Frederick Banting, who discovered insulin, see

For a history of the pregnancy test, see

For information on medicine and American memory, see

For information on global health and human rights, see

For more information, contact Simone Caron at (336) 758-5556 or